70 million years ago, the Earth was inhabited by giant reptiles: gigantic lizards, colossal saurians, which glided, swam and flew. Their reign lasted 100 million years, while, according to the most optimistic estimates, man was barely six million years old.
This means that these species of reptiles had an infinitely longer time to adapt and evolve than humans. Moreover, it is impossible to claim that they represented an evolutionary failure: any species that lasts 100 million years must be considered perfectly adapted.
However, few contemporary species of these reptiles have survived, for example certain crabs, which have not changed in 300 million years. In fact, in less than a million years, giant reptiles have disappeared entirely.
How and why ?
It can hardly be argued that it is because of climate change; for even when the climate changes, the oceans hardly vary, and many of these reptiles lived in the oceans. It is impossible to believe that a higher life form could have exterminated them. A considerable army would have been needed for that, the traces of which would certainly have been found.
An amusing hypothesis is that our ancestors, the mammals, would have fed on dinosaur eggs. But that’s just it: a fun hypothesis; ichthyosaurs laid their eggs in the oceans, beyond the reach of their opponents.
It was said that the grasses had changed and the new grasses were too tough for large reptiles. A totally improbable hypothesis: many types of vegetation have survived, which they could have fed perfectly.
The giant tortoises of the Galápagos Islands, the ones that interested Darwin so much, did not starve to death.
One could say that species age, become senile and die. But that’s bad logic: preserving the genetic code prevents a species from going extinct. And why haven’t species that are still alive after hundreds of millions of years, like crabs and cockroaches, become senile too?
None of these assumptions hold water. But something happened. So what happened? An ingenious hypothesis was sketched out by two Soviet scientists, VI Krasovkii and IS Shlovsky, both eminent astrophysicists – in particular the latter, author of extremely important works in astrophysics and radio astronomy. It was Shlovsky, in fact, who studied synchrotron radiation and showed that relatively rapid and extremely violent events can occur at the center of galaxies as well as in space in general.
The two Soviet scientists explain the end of the dinosaurs by the hypothesis of a supernova occurring at a relatively short distance from our solar system: a supernova five or ten parsecs from us which would have increased the density of radiation coming from space. Giving credibility to this theory, the English radio astronomer Hanbury Brown thinks he detected traces of the explosion of a supernova 50,000 years ago at a distance of only 40 parsecs from the solar system.
Two American scientists, KD Terry of the University of Kansas and WH Tucker of Rice University, have recently studied the problem quantitatively. They have observed stars that, when they explode, do indeed produce such bombardments of radiation.
The effect of a bombardment varies according to the intensity of the earth’s magnetic field. This field partially protects us from the bombardment of cosmic particles by deflecting those with a magnetic charge and forcing them into orbit around our planet.
But this magnetic field varies in intensity.
It is currently declining and will bottom out around the 36th century AD. It is possible that 70 million years ago, a heavy bombardment coincided with a decrease in the earth’s magnetic field, causing a wave of mutations in which the dinosaurs died and the ancestors of man were born. According to an East German scientist, Richter, the bombardment originated in the center of our galaxy and was extremely powerful, despite being produced at such a considerable distance.
If we accept this theory, which is quite possible, we still have to ask ourselves what caused this massive explosion. I exposed my explanation for the first time in 1957 during a French television broadcast.
I still remember the uproar that followed, and I still stand by my hypothesis: the explosion of the star that killed the dinosaurs was deliberately induced, designed to trigger a slow process of evolution leading to intelligent life; we were created by extremely powerful beings.
Knowing the laws of physics as well as those of genetics, these beings who could truly be called gods have set in motion a series of events which will not end with man but will continue until this evolution leads to other gods, beings equal to their creators.
Obviously, this assumption is very audacious.
However, more than once already, we have speculated on the existence of beings infinitely more powerful than us.
We even offered quantitative estimates of what their technologies might be.
The greatest source of energy, which is demonstrated in the H-bomb, is the conversion of hydrogen into helium. However, the quantity of hydrogen in the oceans is enormous, but there is even more in the sun. We can certainly imagine beings capable of extracting hydrogen from the sun and using it. Civilizations of such beings are called Type III civilizations by theorists.
What has become of these civilizations?
Do they still exist in the universe?
Many fine minds answer this question in the affirmative. Shlovsky considers it a not-quite-out-of-the-box hypothesis that quasars and pulsars, hitherto unexplained celestial objects, could be signs of biological activity. The Soviet scientist believes that we should systematically examine the skies in search of what he calls “miracles”, that is, phenomena that cannot be explained solely by known natural laws or by imaginative extrapolations of these laws.
Among these phenomena, Shlovsky would place the abnormal behavior of Phobos, the satellite of Mars which, according to him, could be an artificial construction; the observation of a particular type of star, the R type, which produces a short-lived element that does not exist in nature: technetium. This condition has suggested to eminent scientists the possibility that intelligent beings bombard these R-type stars with technetium to produce a signal.
Other serious investigators – Carl Sagan, for example, believes that beings of Type III civilizations can modulate the electromagnetic emission of a star as easily as we modulate those of a transmitter of sounds and images, and a group of Soviet researchers, under the leadership of astrophysicists Kardaschev and Pschenko, is currently studying such signals.
This group believes that, given the various static disturbances that affect the Earth’s atmosphere, it will be necessary to place a radio observatory on the far side of the Moon to detect these signals. But in any case, their calculations showed them that with quite conceivable means of energy, signals can be sent up to a distance of 13,000 parsecs – in other words, at a distance greater than that that separates us from the center of the galaxy.
An American astrophysicist, Freeman J. Dyson, envisions an even more fantastic “miracle” in the heavens. He thinks that there are beings who can use all the energy produced by their star.
These beings must no longer live on planets, but in artificial spheres that they themselves have built and which completely surround their star.
Other “miracles”, it seems, have been observed in the sky. Although they are rarely mentioned in scientific publications because they seem too fantastic, we hear about them at astronomy conventions, during meals and in the hallways.
For example, there is speculation regarding certain multiple star systems that may be composed of stars of different ages, that is, stars that are necessarily coupled as a result of intelligent activity.
So we see that the existence in the universe of beings far more powerful than ourselves is considered a serious possibility. It is considered quantitatively by eminent scientists.
We don’t need to add speculation.
We simply need to note that the human form is perhaps not to be dismissed. It is possible that it is one of the main stable forms of intelligence in the universe. We don’t use a tenth of our brains.
Our civilization is far from perfect. We have no idea what a civilization would be like in which human beings used 100% of their brain capacity. And it is not at all absurd to attribute to such a civilization in the stars, if it exists, powers analogous to those of Type III civilizations.
Such a point of view seems to me more plausible than all the inventions of science fiction. But anyway, my intention is not to study the possible forms of extraterrestrial beings but rather what I believe to be their manifestations.
For me, the first of these manifestations could have resulted in the end of the dinosaurs. Considering that the evolution of the Earth was at an impasse, that the giant reptiles had not progressed for 50 million years, the Intelligences, perhaps wanting to increase the number of their “brothers due” (expression of the great Soviet mathematician Kolmogoroff), reversed the direction of this evolution and set a new evolutionary goal. We do not know, for the moment, where it leads; but it would be absurd to believe that man as he is today is the goal they pursue.
Perhaps the Intelligences will be compelled to annihilate our species and set in motion another chain. It may be an inspired intuition. Either way, the Intelligences seem far removed from HP Lovecraft’s Old Ones, who created life on Earth by mistake or as a joke.
With this concept in mind, it is interesting to note that intelligent signals were spotted coming from the celestial object CT A 102. It was calculated that at least the wavelength of these signals came from the vicinity of CT A 102, and have been shown to contain the fundamental wavelength of the universe, the radiation transmitted by interstellar hydrogen.
Since this discovery, Professor Gerald Feinberg, of the New York Academy of Sciences, has opined that these signals from the Intelligences are transmitted by particles which he calls tachyons, from the Greek word meaning fast – particles which can be transported in a vacuum faster than light without contradicting Einstein’s theory.
When the methods of observing and detecting tachyons are perfected, we will probably receive signals from other races whose evolution was also triggered by the star that killed the dinosaurs. And perhaps we will detect the observation devices of the Intelligences, which certainly observe us in the same way as we observe cultures of microbes, under the microscope.
Although we have some precise notions on the sources of energy which the Intelligences could have had to carry out their experiments – sources which are extensions of those that we ourselves use in our experiments on the hydrogen and antimatter bomb – our Knowledge in the field of genetics is still too vague for us to imagine how site-directed mutations could be produced remotely. We must first know how mutations can be directed.
To produce site-directed mutations, very short wavelength radiation, or very high energy particles, would have to be used. It would then be necessary to modulate this transmission in order to transfer the genetic characteristics to this modulation in the same way as the images are transferred by a television channel.
Calculations will show that this is possible, provided that very short waves are used, on the gamma ray band, or particles on the de Broglie wavelength and on the short gammas.
Indeed, it is possible for us to design a laboratory device – for example a laser – regulated to produce the type of radiation which would induce mutations. But when we try to imagine a star-scale mutation created and modulated by the Intelligences, our imagination breaks down.
A virus would probably have the same difficulty trying to imagine a laser.
The creatures that created and modulated the star that killed the dinosaurs were truly gods. It is probably the same Intelligences that set the frequency of these celestial objects called pulsars to the hundred billionth, and the fact is that more and more scientists are admitting, in private, that pulsars are artificial; they are so numerous, indeed, that this hypothesis will probably soon appear publicly in most official publications.
Having seen this, we must recognize that most signs of Intelligence activity must elude us for the time being. Just as whole civilizations have lived without knowing the radio, or the existence of other solar systems, we will very probably remain in ignorance of very important phenomena which, if we could detect them, would doubtless prove to us the existence other civilizations.
It is also possible that perfectly classical phenomena are in reality, without our suspecting it, manifestations of intelligent activity. In this regard, I can cite two hypotheses.
John W. Campbell, the late physicist and science fiction writer, studied cosmic particles – particles that reach us from space with very high energy levels of up to 1011 electron volts. These particles are made up of groups of elements that are familiar to us, ranging from hydrogen to iron.
But this very ordinary matter is suddenly launched at a formidable speed, as if a fraction of interstellar gas had suddenly been accelerated until it reached speeds close to that of light. The mechanism that produced this acceleration remains unknown, although Fermi, Shlovsky and many other scientists have proposed different models.
Campbell, for his part, suggested that the universe is full of spaceships that travel at “near” speeds of light. As these craft sweep through the interstellar gas in front of them, we observe a trail – a wake – which is none other than the cosmic rays we have detected.
It cannot be said that Campbell’s hypothesis was greeted with delirious enthusiasm by physicists. However, an American physicist, Robert Bussard, suggested a model of interstellar ship which would absorb interstellar gas by means of a scoop placed at the bow, from which it would draw energy by fusion, and which would then use the products of the reactions – like the propulsion fluid -, the latter being ejected through the stern.
If the universe is filled with this kind of star-connecting spacecraft, then Campbell was right. And it happened to him almost often in an exasperated way.
One can also perfectly imagine that the mysterious variable objects called pulsars are beacons guiding these interstellar ships in the night of space.
A second hypothesis comes from a Russian science writer, Ekaterina Zouravleva.
According to Ms. Zouravleva, we constantly receive signals from space, signals that have been sent since the birth of humanity and probably long before.
This signal consists of aurora borealis and aurora australis (the northern and southern lights).
Whether or not these two examples are true, the principle of the hypotheses is probably good, even if their authors do not take themselves too seriously.
Shlovsky had the opportunity to notice one day, during a conversation with friends, that there are two kinds of hypotheses: the working hypothesis, intended to serve as a starting point for a study, and the conversation hypothesis, which serves to pass the time pleasantly between two meetings on the mathematics of interstellar plasma.
The basic assumption of this paper that we are the result of a series of externally triggered mutations is a valid assumption; the presence of messages to be decoded in an aurora borealis an operational hypothesis.
What other solar systems, or at least other stars with solar systems, could have been influenced by the artificial energy source that killed the dinosaurs?
If we move away at a reasonable distance from our solar system – for example 15 light years – we find five of them: Alpha Centauri, Epsilon Eridani, 61 Cygni A, Epsilon Indi and Tau Celi.
In the centuries to come, research will undoubtedly be carried out to see if life exists in these systems: If so, it will be interesting to know if this life resembles ours, if the rocks of the planets of these systems bear the traces of a cosmic bombardment which occurred, on our scale, 70 million years ago. With such a second landmark, we could then locate in space the star, man-made or man-made, that killed the dinosaurs.
Until we have such a cross-reference, it is unfortunately unlikely that we will discover our foulding star. Within a radius of 1000 light years we find about 10 million stars, and it is currently impossible to know which of them could be the dead debris of an artificial star created by the Intelligences.
The destruction of the dinosaurs certainly came from the cosmos and not from our solar system, but the study of cosmic influences related to the galaxy is only in its infancy.
We have been able to observe numerical coincidences, which may just be coincidences. For example, the frequency of major ice ages, about 250 million years, roughly matches the rotation period of our solar system around the center of the galaxy, which is about 230 million years.
And we’re also trying to figure out how often the center of our galaxy, where chain starbursts and disturbances are happening that we have very little idea of, is throwing up showers of condensed matter.
Unfortunately, we still have a long way to go in this study, although some interesting discoveries are being made. For example, one wonders if it is the explosions of stars in chain which are at the origin of the mysterious quasars, which are not much larger than isolated stars and which release as much energy as entire galaxies.
It is generally accepted that these quasars are something completely new and that it is currently impossible to consider a scientific hypothesis that could account for it.
Some scientists believe that mankind may one day be able to understand and even replicate the energy source of these quasars. This is one of the justifications for the fantastic budgets gobbled up by organizations like CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research).
For my part, I believe that humanity is already threatened with destruction by the H-bomb and that we must put a brake on the research institutes which could make available to us fantastic powers for which the human species is not not ready yet. The ancient alchemists were quite right to believe that the secrets of matter had to be jealously guarded.
If Hitler had the means to blow up a star like the Intelligences blew up the star that killed the dinosaurs, he certainly would have done it. I therefore hope that the studies of very high energies will not be completed for some time and that the power to turn the stars on and off freely will never be entrusted to the military or to the politicians.
We have already made a huge leap from TNT to H-bomb. This means that a one ton hydrogen bomb can release an amount of energy equal to that of 10 million tons of TNT. This is what we call a 10 megaton bomb, and of course such bombs actually exist.
A comparable leap would take us from the energy of the H-bomb to the energy needed to cause the explosion of a star. In other words, progress similar to that which took us in 20 years from the TNT bomb to the H bomb would put the power of intelligence at our disposal.
I therefore hope that this evolution will not occur in the lifetime of current humanity, which has proven only too well what it is capable of. But to believe that this progress will never happen, in a universe that has existed for at least 20 billion years, is extremely naive.
Somewhere in the universe, viruses have evolved into Intelligences. If the phenomenon occurred several times, the different Intelligences must have come into contact; as Teilhard de Chardin said, “Everything that rises must converge. A Harvard botanist, Elso Barghoorn, has proven that certain bacteria lived on Earth three billion years ago.
It took all this time, and the help of the Intelligences, to go from these bacteria to what we are, and even if it takes 10 billion years for the Intelligences to appear naturally, that time would only be half of the observable age of the universe.
There is nothing in known science that conflicts with theories concerning the existence of Intelligences. There is no longer anything contradictory with the possibility that they intervened.
Perhaps they have set up a detection and observation satellite in our solar system which is none other than the mysterious moon Phobos, the satellite of the planet Mars. Maybe they put in place these protective radiation belts around the Earth that we are just beginning to discover. Maybe… *END