According to ancient records, there was a period in ancient Egypt when the Pharaohs’ realm was controlled by humans when creatures from the heavens dominated the country. For thousands of years, these mysterious entities known as Gods or Demigods inhabited and ruled ancient Egypt.
The Turin King List is shrouded in secrecy.
A Ramesside medieval biblical canon is the Turin King List. A “canon” is a grouping or collection of universal laws or books. The term is derived from the Greek word “rule” or “measuring stick,” which means “rule” or “measuring stick.”
The Turin King List is the most significant of the so-called king lists from ancient Egypt. Despite considerable degradation, it offers vital information for Egyptologists and corresponds to Manetho’s ancient Egyptian historical collection in several ways.
It was found the Turin King List.
The Royal Canon of Turin On his way to Luxor in 1822, the Italian diplomat and explorer Bernardino Drovetti acquired papyrus inscribed in hieratic, an ancient Egyptian cursive writing type.
The paper had broken into numerous pieces and had to be reconstructed and understood with great effort, despite arriving in Italy mostly intact and in a box with other papyri.
The first 48 pieces of the jigsaw were constructed by Jean-Francois Champollion, a French Egyptologist (1790-1832). Another hundred parts were afterward brought together by Gustavus Seyffarth, a German and American archaeologist (1796-1885). Historians are always looking for and putting together the missing pieces of the Turin King List.
In 1938, the museum’s director, Giulio Farina, oversaw one of the most important restorations. However, in 1959, Gardiner, a British Egyptologist, proposed a new location for the pieces, which included the newly discovered sections in 2009.
The introduction and conclusion of the Turin King List, which is presently made up of 160 pieces, are missing. The scribe’s name is considered to appear in the introductory section of the Turin King List.
What are king lists, exactly?
Ancient Egyptian King Lists are lists of royal names that the ancient Egyptians kept in some kind of order. These lists were regularly commissioned by pharaohs to illustrate the antiquity of their royal lineage by naming all of the pharaohs in order (a dynasty).
Though this seemed to be the most practical means of chronicling various pharaohs’ reigns at first, it was not particularly accurate since ancient Egyptians were renowned for suppressing things they didn’t like or inflating information that made them look good.
These lists, according to tradition, were compiled as a kind of “ancestor worship” rather than historical information. Remember that the ancient Egyptians believed the pharaoh was a reincarnation of Horus on earth, and that after death, he would be connected to Osiris.
By comparing the lists to each other and to data acquired from other sources, Egyptologists were able to reconstruct the most logical historical record. We know of the following King Lists thus far:
The Royal List of Thutmosis III from Karnak
The Royal List of Sety I at Abydos
The Palermo Stone, Ramses II’s Abydos King List, and the Saqqara Tablet found in Troy’s tomb
The Turin Royal Canon (Turin King List)
Inscriptions on rocks near Wadi Hammamat
In Egyptology, what sets the Turin King List (Turin Royal Canon) apart?
All of the other lists were scribbled on durable surfaces like a tomb, temple walls, or rocks. One king list, in particular, stood out: the Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, which was written in hieratic writing on papyri. It is about 1.7 meters long.
The Turin King List, unlike other king lists, includes all monarchs, including minors and usurpers. It also keeps track of how long each reign lasts.
This list of pharaohs seems to have been produced during Ramesses II’s reign, the famous 19th dynasty pharaoh. It dates back to King Menes and is the most thorough and up-to-date list available. It contains not just the names of the monarchs, as most other lists do, but also other helpful information, such as:
– In certain cases, the duration of each king’s reign in years, months, and days.
– It contains the names of kings who were not included in earlier king lists.
– Instead of placing rulers in chronological order, it places them geographically.
– It even references Egypt’s Hyksos rulers by name.
– It stems from a strange period in Egyptian history when the country was ruled by gods and mythical emperors.
The last point is an interesting part of Egypt’s history that has yet to be resolved. The Turin Royal Canon’s most intriguing and problematic portion tells the account of Gods, Demigods, and Spirits of the Dead who ruled for thousands of years.
According to the Turin King List, Gods, Demigods, and Spirits of the Dead governed for thousands of years.
According to Manetho, Mena or Menes was Egypt’s first “human ruler” about 4,400 BC (naturally, “moderns” have changed that date for far more recent dates). After diverting from the Nile’s flow and conducting a temple service there, this monarch created Memphis.
According to R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz in his book “Sacred Science: The King of Pharaonic Theocracy,” Egypt had previously been controlled by Gods and Demigods:
The final two lines of the column in the Turin Papyrus’ record detailing the Reign of the Gods say: “Venerables Shemsu-Hor, 13,420 years; Reigns before the Shemsu-Hor, 23,200 years; Total 36,620 years.”
The final two lines of the column, which seem to represent a summary of the whole record, are interesting and eerily similar to the Sumerian King List.
Those timelines are disregarded because current materialistic science cannot recognize the corporeal existence of Gods and Demigods as monarchs. The “Long List of Kings” chronology, on the other hand, is (partially) recorded in a number of reliable historical sources, including other Egyptian King Lists.
The mysterious Egyptian empire as described by Manetho.
We are obliged to turn to the manuscripts that contain portions of Manetho’s work if we allow him to speak for himself as high priest of Egypt’s accursed temples. One of the most notable of them is the Armenian translation of Eusebius’ Chronica. It begins by stating that it is based on “Manetho’s Egyptian History, which he authored in three volumes.” “The Gods, Demigods, Spirits of the Dead, and the mortal rulers who governed Egypt are all mentioned.”
Eusebius starts with reading Manetho’s Ennead of Heliopolis, which contains mostly of the Ennead of Heliopolis gods – Ra, Osiris, Isis, Horus Set, and so forth. These were Egypt’s earliest rulers.
“After then, the throne passed in uninterrupted succession from one to the next… for 13,900 years…” Demigods ruled for 1255 years after the Gods, then another line of monarchs reigned for 1817 years, thirty more kings reigned for 1790 years, and ten more kings reigned for 350 years. The rule of the Spirits of the Dead lasted for 5813 years…”
All of these periods add up to 24,925 years. For example, Manetho is credited with providing the huge number of 36,525 years for the whole duration of Egyptian civilization, from the time of the Gods to the conclusion of the 30th (and last) dynasty of human rulers.
What did Diodorus Siculus, a Greek historian, learn about Egypt’s mysterious past?
Many ancient authors agree with Manetho’s assessment. In the first century BC, a Greek historian named Diodorus Siculus traveled to Egypt. His most recent translator, C.H. Oldfather, accurately characterizes him as an uncritical compiler who chose excellent materials and faithfully replicated them.
In other words, Diodorus did not try to impose his thoughts and opinions on the information he gathered. As a consequence, he’s useful to us since he interviewed Egyptian priests about their country’s mysterious history. The following was told to Diodorus:
“At first, gods and heroes governed Egypt for little under 18,000 years, with Horus, the son of Isis, reigning as the last of the gods…” They believe that humans have ruled their empire for fewer than 5000 years.”
What did Herodotus learn about Egypt’s enigmatic past?
Herodotus, a prominent Greek historian who lived in the fifth century BC, visited Egypt much before Diodorus. He seems to have mingled with priests and was able to pick up on stories about the existence of sophisticated civilization in the Nile Valley at some unspecified point in history.
Herodotus discusses these traditions of a huge primordial era of Egyptian civilization in Book II of his History. He also passes on to us in the same book, without comment, a particular piece of knowledge handed down from the priests of Heliopolis:
“The sun rose out of his customary spot four times during this period, they stated, twice rising where he usually sets and twice setting where he now rises.”
The ‘First Time’ in Egyptian History: Zep Tepi
The Egyptians maintained the following about the First Time, Zep Tepi, when the gods ruled their land:
– Legend has it that when the waters of the abyss retreated, it was a wonderful period. The primordial gloom was no longer present.
– As mankind matured, civilization’s gifts were bestowed upon it.
They also referenced the Urshu, a subcategory of lesser gods known as the “Watchers.” And they had especially vivid recollections of the gods themselves, the Neteru, strong and beautiful creatures. From Heliopolis and other sanctuaries along the Nile, the latter coexisted with humans and exercised their dominion.
Some of the Neteru were male, while others were female, but they all had a range of magical skills, such as the ability to transform into men or women, animals, birds, reptiles, trees, or plants at command. Surprisingly, their words and actions seem to have reflected human emotions and concerns. Similarly, despite being depicted as being more strong and intelligent than humans, it was thought that they may become sick, die, or be killed under certain circumstances.
If the Turin Canon Papyrus had been preserved, what would we have learned about the “First Time”?
The surviving bits are tantalizing. For example, we read the names of 10 Neteru in one register, each name engraved in a cartouche (oblong enclosure) in a style similar to that employed later for Egypt’s historical monarchs. The number of years each Neter was claimed to have ruled was also given, albeit most of these statistics have been lost due to damaged writing.
Another column has a list of the mortal rulers who reigned in upper and lower Egypt after the Gods but before the state’s purported unification under Menes, the first pharaoh of the First Dynasty, about 3100 BC.
Nine ‘dynasties’ of these pre-dynastic pharaohs were chronicled, according to the extant pieces, including ‘the Venerables of Memphis,’ ‘the Venerables of the North,’ and lastly, the Shemsu Hor (the Companions, or Followers, of Horus), who reigned until the time of Menes.
Another king list that deals with ancient times and mythological Egyptian monarchs is the Palermo Stone. Although it does not go back as far as the Turin Canon Papyrus, it includes material that casts doubt on our accepted history.